Stem Cells An Advancement in Medical Science

Stem cells are a “force of nature” responsible for wound healing, organ growth and repair as well as rejuvenating effects that could be considered the “true” fountain of youth. Stem cells are the ‘basic cells’ of our bodies, which can develop and differentiate in any type of cell. These cells migrate to injured areas within the body and get transplanted and transform themselves into new tissue cells that replace the damaged ones. Stem cells have the capacity to multiply and renew themselves almost indefinitely.

A stem cell treatment is a treatment that uses stem cells to treat incurable diseases like Cerebral Palsy, Brain Hemorrhage and Stroke, Spinal Cord Injury & Paraplegia, Autism, Parkinsonism, Motor Neuron Disease, Muscular Dystrophy ,Liver Diseases, Huntington’s Disease , Chronic Kidney Diseases ,Optic Neuritis , Multiple Sclerosis ,Cerebellar Ataxia and Friedrich Ataxia . Studies worldwide have shown encouraging results.

Rudolf Ludwig Karl Virchow (1821-1902), the founder of cellular pathology and the one who pioneered the modern concept of cell theory (Omnis cellula e cellula) originally proposed the concept of ‘stemness of each cell from another cell’. Primary studies of stem cell treatment shows two important heterogeneous populations of stem cells in the bone marrow include hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Recently various subsets of HSCs and MSCs have been isolated from bone marrow and blood. There has been more recent interest in the use of extra embryonic mesenchymal stem cells. Research is currently underway to examine the differentiating capabilities of stem cells found in the umbilical cord, yolk sac and placenta of different animals. These stem cells are thought to have more differentiating ability than their adult counterparts, including the ability to more readily form tissues of endodermal and ectodermal origin

The nature of stem cell therapy is somewhat controversial in some aspects aswell, however, some therapy like bone-marrow has been used to treat cancer patients with conditions such as leukaemia and lymphoma.This is a critical form of stem cell treatment in India that is widely practiced. During chemotherapy, most growing cells are killed by the cytotoxic agents. These agents, however, cannot discriminate between the leukaemia or neoplastic cells, and the hematopoietic stem cells within the bone marrow. It is this side effect of conventional chemotherapy strategies that the stem cell transplant attempts to reverse; a donor’s healthy bone marrow reintroduces functional stem cells to replace the cells lost in the host’s body during treatment.

After the stem cell therapy, positive results were achieved after an average of about 2 months from the treatment. Majority of the patients experience better coordination and improved motor skills in their hands and fingers. Stem cell research has gained considerable impetus in India in the recent years. A number of guidelines have been formulated for pursuing the study and treatment of the field with relatively higher success rate.

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