Acute Kidney failure is also known as Acute Renal Failure or Acute Kidney Injury. It occurs when kidneys suddenly start malfunctioning. They fail to filter waste products from the blood as a result of which these waste get accumulated in the body, disturbing the chemical balance. It’s onset is rapid- usually within a few hours or weeks. It is more common in people who are hospitalized especially those who need intensive care. Although this condition is serious, the damage is reversible with timely treatment.
Symptoms: – Not all cases of acute kidney failure manifest symptoms. Sometimes, the disease has to be detected using lab tests.
3. Reduction in urine excretion
4. Excessive fluid retention in the body
5. Swelling of legs, feet or ankles.
6. Shortness in breath
8. Chest pain or pressure
1. Reduction in blood flow to the kidneys: – Blood flow to kidneys gets impaired due to following conditions:-
1. Heart diseases of failure
2. Liver failure
3. Blood pressure medications
4. Use of Aspirin or NSAIDs
5. Infections or allergies like anaphylaxis
6. Severe dehydration
7. Blood or fluid loss
8. Severe burns
2. Kidney damage: – Kidney damage can be cause by following factors:-
1. Clogged arteries or veins around the kidneys
2. Blood clots or cholesterol deposits in arteries
3. Glomerulonephritis- inflammation of filters (glomeruli) in kidneys
4. Hemolytic uremic syndrome- destruction of RBCs.
6. Certain medications like chemotherapy drugs or antibiotics
7. Multiple myeloma
9. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP)
10. Exposure to heavy metals or cocaine
12. Inflammation of blood cells(Vasculitis)
3. Urinary obstructions: – causes of urinary destructions are as follows:-
1. Cancer of bladder, cervix , colon or prostate glands
2. Enlarge prostate gland
3. Clots of blood or clogging of urinary tract
4. Kidney stones
5. Damage to the nerves controlling bladder activities
Possible Risk factors:-
1. Age- risk of kidney failure increase in older age
3. Blood pressure
4. Peripheral artery disease-blockages in blood vessels
5. Heart failure
6. Chronic kidney or liver diseases
1. Fluid buildup in chest which may result into shortness of breath
2. Chest pain on account of inflammation of heart lining
3. Muscle weakness on account of elevated potassium levels and imbalance of electrolytes.
4. Permanent kidney damage requiring lifelong dialysis.
6. Urine output measurements to measure total excretion of urine in a day. It helps to ascertain the cause of disease.
7. Urinalysis: – urine tests are administered to know the presence of infections and abnormalities.
8. Blood tests: – To measure the levels of urea and creatinine.
9. Imaging tests like MRI/CT scans and ultrasound.
10. Kidney Biopsy
This disease is often very difficult to prevent. Preventive measures like maintaining healthy lifestyle, reducing intake of alcohol, and regular consultation with medical practitioner in case of already existing kidney diseases or hypertension will surely help.