Kidney is an important part of the body and that is the reason there are two and not one. Even if one stops to function the person could still live normal with one kidney. However, problem occurs when both these face a kidney failure. The kidney controls and manages fluids in the body and at the same time helps disposing off the waste fluids from the body. There are many causes of kidney failure which can be grouped as prerenal causes; renal causes; Post renal causes; chronic renal failure.
When the supply of blood to the kidneys is reduced it is said to be the prerenal cause for the kidney failure. The prerenal causes could be Hypovolemia means low volume of blood caused due to loss of blood; dehydration; less than required intake of fluids; certain medication can cause fluid loss.
When the kidney is damaged directly to result into a kidney failure it is called the renal causes of kidney failure. Sepsis, medications, rhabdomyolysis, multiple myeloma and acute glomerulonephritis would be covered under the renal causes. When the outflow of urine is obstructed due to certain reasons it is called the post renal causes of kidney failure. Bladder obstruction, prostate cancer or Prostatic hypertrophy; tumors and kidney stones could be the reasons obstructing the urine flow.
The chronic renal failure would include diabetes; high blood pressure; chronic glomerulonephritis. The Polycystic Kidney Disease; Reflux nephropathy; Kidney stones and Prostate disease could be the less common causes.
The symptoms that could be a sign of kidney failure would be –
1-In the beginning there would not be any noticeable symptoms that could be seen or realized. Later, metabolic acidosis due to the inability of the kidney to manufacture bicarbonate would affect the oxygen and enzyme metabolism this would result in kidney failure.
2-Rising potassium levels would be there.
3-Urea levels would be rising in the blood.
4-Generalized weakness due to the reduced blood cell count.
5-The affects of waste in the body like – lethargy, loss of appetite and fatigue would start to get to surface.
6-Breathing would become rapid.
The treatment of kidney failure would depend upon the stage at which the person is. The diagnosis of the kidney failure and the severity of the same are done by taking a blood test. The level of waste in the blood would help to see how bad the kidney has started to function. Further, the urine tests could be taken. The presence of proteins in the urine would tell that the kidney has stopped to function.
Ultrasound of the abdomen and biopsy are the other tests that would be suggested by the doctor to dig deep. If the is at the stage that the kidney could be saved by medications or a minor surgery for that matter – these are undertaken to prevent a total kidney failure. And in c se noting could be done, and then kidney transplantation in considered if both the kidneys fail to function the way they should.